Rachel Murray is a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow in the School of English at the University of Sheffield. Her research specialises in modernism, animal studies, and the environment. She is the author of The Modernist Exoskeleton: Insects, War, Literary Form (Edinburgh University Press, 2020).
1914—a year that looms large in modernist studies for many reasons, including the beginning of the First World War, the “Men of 1914” variant of literary modernism, and the publication of landmark works such as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (in serial form), Tender Buttons, and Des Imagistes—also marks the extinction of the passenger pigeon. Martha, the species endling, died of old age at the Cincinnati Zoo on September 1.